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- Jorge Mautner
Germany implemented the persecution of the Jews in stages. Following Adolf Hitler's appointment as German Chancellor in January , the regime built a network of concentration camps in Germany for political opponents and those deemed "undesirable", starting with Dachau on 22 March After the passing of the Enabling Act on 24 March, which gave Hitler plenary powers, the government began isolating Jews from civil society, which included a boycott of Jewish businesses in April and enacting the Nuremberg Laws in September On 9—10 November , during Kristallnacht , Jewish businesses and other buildings were ransacked, smashed or set on fire throughout Germany and Austria , which Germany had annexed in March that year.
Thousands of camps and other detention sites were established across German-occupied Europe ; the deportation of Jews to the ghettos culminated in the policy of extermination the Nazis called the " Final Solution to the Jewish Question ", discussed by senior Nazi officials at the Wannsee Conference in Berlin in January As German forces captured territories in the East, all anti-Jewish measures were radicalized.
Under the coordination of the SS, with directions from the highest leadership of the Nazi Party , killings were committed within Germany itself, throughout occupied Europe , across all territories controlled by the Axis powers. Paramilitary death squads called Einsatzgruppen , in cooperation with Wehrmacht police battalions and local collaborators, murdered around 1.
By mid, victims were being deported from the ghettos in sealed freight trains to extermination camps where, if they survived the journey, they were killed in gas chambers. The biblical term shoah, meaning "destruction", became the standard Hebrew term for the murder of the European Jews , first used in a pamphlet in , Sho'at Yehudei Polin, published by the United Aid Committee for the Jews in Poland. On 3 October the cover of the magazine The American Hebrew used the phrase "before the Holocaust" to refer to the situation in France , in May The New York Times , discussing the Bermuda Conference , referred to the "hundreds of thousands of European Jews still surviving the Nazi Holocaust".
In the Library of Congress created a new category, "Holocaust, Jewish". The term was popularized in the United States by the NBC mini-series Holocaust, about a fictional family of German Jews , in November the President's Commission on the Holocaust was established; as non-Jewish groups began to include themselves as Holocaust victims too, many Jews chose to use the terms Shoah or Churban instead. Most Holocaust historians define the Holocaust as the enactment, between and , of the German state policy to exterminate the European Jews.
In Teaching the Holocaust, Michael Gray , a specialist in Holocaust education, offers three definitions: "the persecution and murder of Jews by the Nazis and their collaborators between and ", which views the events of Kristallnacht in Germany in as an early phase of the Holocaust; the third definition fails, Gray writes, to acknowledge that only the Jewish people were singled out for annihilation. The United States Holocaust Memorial Museum defines the Holocaust as the "systematic, state-sponsored persecution and murder of six million Jews by the Nazi regime and its collaborators", distinguishing between the Holocaust and the targeting of other groups during "the era of the Holocaust".
According to Yad Vashem , Israel's Holocaust memorial, most historians regard the start of the "Holocaust era" as January , when Hitler was named Chancellor of Germany. Other victims of the Holocaust era include.
Hitler came to see the Jews as "uniquely dangerous to Germany", according to Peter Hayes , "and therefore uniquely destined t. Rio de Janeiro state Rio de Janeiro is one of the 27 federative units of Brazil. Rio de Janeiro has an area of 43, km2, its capital is the city of Rio de Janeiro, the capital of the Portuguese Colony of Brazil from to , of the following United Kingdom of Portugal and the Algarves from to , of independent Brazil as a kingdom and republic from to The archaic demonym meaning for the Rio de Janeiro State is " fluminense ", taken from the Latin word flumen, meaning "river".
From and during the Imperial Regime , "carioca" remained only as a nickname by which other Brazilians called the inhabitants of Rio. During the first years of the Brazilian Republic , "carioca" was the name given to those who lived in the slums or a pejorative way to refer the bureaucratic elite of the Federal District. In , the Guanabara State was ended and extinct by President Ernesto Geisel becoming the present City of Rio de Janeiro and "carioca" was made the demonym of its municipality.
Although "carioca" is not recognized as an official demonym of Rio de Janeiro State, Brazilians call the inhabitants of Rio de Janeiro in general as "cariocas", most of its inhabitants claim to be "cariocas". Nowadays, social movements like "Somos Todos Cariocas" have tried to achieve the official recognition of "carioca" as a co-official demonym of the Rio de Janeiro State.
Rio de Janeiro is one of the smallest in Brazil, it is, the third most populous Brazilian state, with a population of 16 million of people in and has the third longest coastline in the country. In the Brazilian flag, the state is represented by the beta star in the Southern Cross. European presence in Rio de Janeiro is as old as Brazil itself, dating back to Between and , the territory was occupied by the French, who intended to install a colony, France Antarctique. In the 17th century, cattle raising and sugar cane cultivation stimulated the city's progress, definitively assured when the port started to export gold extracted from Minas Gerais in the 18th century.
In , Rio de Janeiro became the capital of Colonial Brazil. With the flight of the Portuguese royal family from Portugal to Brazil in , the region soon benefited from urban reforms to house the Portuguese. Chief among the promoted changes were: the transformation of agencies of public administration and justice, the creation of new churches, hospitals, the foundation of the first bank of the country - the Banco do Brasil - and the Royal Press, with the Gazette do Rio of Janeiro; the following years witnessed the creation of the Academia Real Militar. There followed a process of cultural enhancement influenced not only by the arrival of the Royal Family , but by the presence of European graphic artists who were hired to record the society and Brazilian natural features.
In , the city became the capital of the Republic, the neutral city became the federal district and the province a state.
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In , the states of Guanabara and Rio de Janeiro were merged under the name of Rio de Janeiro, with the city of Rio de Janeiro as state capital; the symbols of the former State of Rio de Janeiro were preserved, while the symbols of Guanabara were kept by the city of Rio de Janeir.
After being overthrown in a coup, Vargas returned to power as the democratically elected president in , serving until his suicide in Vargas led Brazil for 18 years, the longest of any President, second in Brazilian history only to Emperor Pedro II among heads of state, he favored nationalism, industrialization , social welfare and populism — for the latter, Vargas won the nickname "The Father of the Poor". Vargas was brought to power by political outsiders and the rank and file of the Armed Forces in the Revolution of , a reaction to his loss in elections earlier that year.
He influenced the outcome of the Brazilian presidential election of , used fears of a Communist uprising to institute an authoritarian corporatist regime in known as the New State, modeled off of Mussolini's Italy and Salazar's Portugal. Vargas went on to appease and dominate his supporters, pushed his political agenda as he built a propaganda machine around his figure. Vargas sought to transform Brazil from a plantation-based economy into an industrialized powerhouse under the guidance of the government intervention, his embrace of developmentalism was expressed not only in strong rhetoric , but by lending protection to domestic industries and in a heavy investment budget aimed at kick-starting "strategic" sectors and setting up the necessary infrastructure.
The protectionist trend was reversed by the s with the liberal reforms of Fernando Collor de Mello and Fernando Henrique Cardoso. His popularity awarded him a late presidential term in , but growing political strife over his views and methods caused Vargas to become stressed, leading to his suicide by gunshot in , he was the first president in the country to draw widespread support from the masses and is regarded as the most influential Brazilian politician of the twentieth century.
He had been a lawyer and landowner who occupied the 37th chair of the Brazilian Academy of Letters from until his death in Vargas enlisted as a private in in the sixth infantry battalion and joined the military college at Rio Pardo.
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Vargas turned to law school at Porto Alegre in the Rio Grande , while there he published a political newspaper, O Debate. Vargas was the chosen orator in his graduating class of and was appointed district attorney. Once elected Governor of Rio Grande do Sul , he became a leading figure in the national opposition, urging the end of electoral corruption through the adoption of the universal and secret ballot. As Governor of Rio Grande do Sul he distinguished himself as an excellent administrator. During his term as governor he reorganized the agricultural system, he established agricultural bank.
He created the department of agriculture in his state. Vargas worked hard to improve schools and infrastructure during his term as governor, he and his wife Darci Lima Sarmanho, whom he married in March , had five children: Lutero, Jandira , Manuel e Getulinho. Aimee de Herren living between France and the United States and admired by other famous statesmen such as the Kennedy brothers, never confirmed nor denied the rumor.
Between the two World Wars , Brazil was a industria. London London is the capital and largest city of both England and the United Kingdom. Standing on the River Thames in the south-east of England, at the head of its mile estuary leading to the North Sea , London has been a major settlement for two millennia. The City of Westminster is an Inner London borough holding city status. Greater London is governed by the Mayor of the London Assembly.
London is considered to be one of the world's most important global cities and has been termed the world's most powerful, most desirable, most influential, most visited, most expensive, sustainable, most investment friendly, most popular for work, the most vegetarian friendly city in the world. London exerts a considerable impact upon the arts, education, fashion, healthcare, professional services and development, tourism and transportation. London ranks 26 out of major cities for economic performance.
It is one of the largest financial centres and has either the fifth or sixth largest metropolitan area GDP, it is the most-visited city as measured by international arrivals and has the busiest city airport system as measured by passenger traffic. It is the leading investment destination, hosting more international retailers and ultra high-net-worth individuals than any other city.
London's universities form the largest concentration of higher education institutes in Europe. In , London became the first city to have hosted three modern Summer Olympic Games. London has a diverse range of people and cultures, more than languages are spoken in the region, its estimated mid municipal population was 8,,, the most populous of any city in the European Union and accounting for London's urban area is the second most populous in the EU, after Paris , with 9,, inhabitants at the census. The population within the London commuter belt is the most populous in the EU with 14,, inhabitants in London was the world's most populous city from c.
The London Underground is the oldest underground railway network in the world. Over the years, the name has attracted many mythicising explanations; the earliest attested appears in Geoffrey of Monmouth's Historia Regum Britanniae , written around This had it that the name originated from a supposed King Lud , who had taken over the city and named it Kaerlud. Modern scientific analyses of the name must account for the origins of the different forms found in early sources Latin , Old English , Welsh, with reference to the known developments over time of sounds in those different languages.
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It is agreed; this was adapted into Latin as Londinium and borrowed into Old English, the ancestor-language of English. The toponymy of the Common Brythonic form is much debated. Coates suggested that this was a name given to the part of the River Thames which flows through London. Peter Schrijver has suggested, on these grounds, that the name meant'place that floods'; until , the name " London " applied to the City of London , but since it has referred to the County of London and Greater London. In , the remains of a Bronze Age bridge were found on the south foreshore, upstream of Vauxhall Bridge ; this bridge either reached a now lost island in it.
Two of those timbers were radiocarbon dated to between BC and BC. In the foundations of a large timber structure, dated to between BC and BC, were found on the Thames's south foreshore, downstream of Vauxhall Bridge; the function of the mesolithic structure is not known. Both structures are on the south bank. Although there is evidence of scattered Brythonic settlements in the area, the first major settlement was founded by the Romans about four years after the invasion. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
Jorge Mautner. Rio de Janeiro , Rio de Janeiro , Brazil. Ruth Mendes m.
January 17, Retrieved May 22, Interior da Bahia in Portuguese. July 28, Retrieved January 1, O Globo in Portuguese. Retrieved January 2, Order of Cultural Merit Brazil. Portela G. Vila Isabel G. Camisa Verde e Branco G. Related Images. YouTube Videos. Anthony , c. Rio de Janeiro , the capital city of the State of Rio de Janeiro. Cave painting at Serra da Capivara National Park.
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This area has the largest concentration of prehistoric sites in the Americas. Painting showing the arrest of Tiradentes ; he was sentenced to death for his involvement in the best known movement for independence in Colonial Brazil. Painting of The Latin Grammy honors works produced anywhere around the world that were recorded in either Spanish or Portuguese and is awarded in the United States. A person who sings is called a singer or vocalist.